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Örjan Martinsson

The Fall of Rome

= West Roman Empire   = East Roman Empire   = Lost territories 
= Territories ruled by foederati (Franks, Visigoths, Burgundians and Bretons)

The Fall of the Western Empire 395-476

395-397 The Visigothic king Alaric break the peace and start to pillage in the Balkans and in Italy. Peace is concluded when the Visigoths are given the task to defend the province of Illyricum.
Alaric breaks the peace again and march to Italy. But he returns to Illyricum when the West Roman commander Stilicho defeats him.
The capitol of the West Roman Empire is moved to Ravenna.
The Rhine frontier is severely weakened when the legions are transferred to northern Italy to ward off Germanic attacks. On new years eve the Rhine is crossed by Vandals, Suevi and Alans who then ravages Gaul the following years.
The Burgundians crosses the Rhine and create a kingdom of their own there.
Stilicho is murdered by orders from the emperor and the Visigoths under Alaric attack Italy again. They force the city of Rome to pay an indemnity before they settle in Tuscany.
The Vandals, Suevi and Alans crosses the Pyrenees to plunder in Spain.
Rome is sacked by the Visigoths. The last Roman legions abandon Britain, which is left to its own fate.
The Vandals, Suevi and Alans partition the Iberian Peninsula among themselves, only the northern part remain under Roman rule.
As foederati the Visigoths defeat the Vandals and the Alans. Rome then allows them to settle in Aquitaine in Gaul.
War against the Persians. In the peace the Persians agrees to stop the persecutions against the Christians in Persia and Romans agree to stop the persecution of the zoroastrians in the Roman Empire.
The Vandals conquers the Balearic Islands.
The Vandals move to Africa where they conquer five of six provinces before they are given the status as foederati.
The Burgundian kingdom at the Rhine is crushed by the Romans and the Huns.
The Vandals conquer Carthage and make it to their capital. Greek become an official language in the East Roman Empire.
Sicily is conquered by the Vandals.
A new short war against the Persians.
The Roman Empire recognise the Vandal kingdom as an independent state.
The Burgundians create a new kingdom at the Geneva lake as Roman foederati.
Pannonia is lost to the Huns.
Celts from Britain settle in Bretagne and are given the status as foederati.
Attila and his Huns are defeated by an alliance between Romans and Germanic tribes led by the Roman commander Aëtius in the battle of the Catalaunian Fields.
Attila invades northern Italy.
Attila dies and his empire that includes the territory between the Rhine, Danube, Baltic Sea and the Caspian Sea is partitioned by his sons.
The peoples the Huns had subjugated rise against them and crush their empire. Aëtius is murdered by orders from the West Roman emperor. The Vandals conquer Malta.
The Vandals sack Rome.
The Suevi who had taken control over the larger part of the Iberian peninsula Spain are defeated by the Visigoths and loses everything except the north-western corner of the peninsula. The Visigoths start to act more and more independent from Rome. The Ostrogoths settles at the same them in Pannonia. The Vandals conquers Sardinia.
The Roman official Syagrius rule northern Gaul as an independent state.
The Vandals conquers Corsica.
The Ostrogoths leave Pannonia and migrate to Macedonia and Moesia, where from they ravage the Balkan Peninsula the following years.
474 The Visigoth king Euric cease to recognise the Roman emperor's supremacy and begin to conquer those parts of Gaul that are still controlled by Rome.
The German Odovacar depose the last West Roman emperor and proclaim himself king over Italy. The Vandals cede Sicily to him the same year.

= West Roman Empire   = East Roman Empire   = Lost territories 
= Syagrius´s breakaway state (464-86) = Land ruled by ex-emperor Julius Nepos 475-80
= Territories ruled by foederati (Franks, Burgundians and Bretons)

The East Roman Empire Evolves Into the Byzantine Empire

483 The Ostrogoths ravaging of the Balkans cease when they are given the status as foederati. Thereby the Ostrogoths control large part of the Balkans and their king Theoderic the Great is appointed to consul for the year 484.
The Frankish king Clovis who controls Belgium defeats Syagrius and conquer his territory in northern Gaul.
The Ostrogoths led by Theoderic the Great march to Italy there they defeat Odoacer and take over his kingdom.
502-505 War against Persia.
The Visigoths are defeated by the Franks and lose the Gallic parts of their kingdom.

= Territories ruled by foederati   = East Roman Empire

527-532 War against the Persians. In the peace emperor Justinian agrees to pay Persia subsidies for defending the passes in the Caucasus against barbarian peoples.
Justinian close the academy in Athens.
The East Roman general Belisarius conquers the Vandal kingdom. The Franks conquer the Burgundian kingdom.
The Gothic Wars. The East Roman Empire destroys the Ostrogothic kingdom and return Italy to the empire.
War against Persia. It is interrupted by several armistices. Peace is concluded when the Roman Empire agrees to pay the Persians an annual tribute.
The Justinian plague break out and become endemic for a long time afterwards.
Andalucia in southern Spain is conquered by the Roman Empire. The Visigoths will spend the following decades to slowly take back the territory.

= Frankish kingdom  = Justinian's conquests  = East Roman Empire

567 The Avars conquers the central Danube region and subjugates the Slavic tribes. The East Roman Empire has thereby got a new formidable enemy.
The Germanic Lombards conquers large parts of Italy.
War against Persia breaks out when East Rome ceases to pay the annual tributes. The war ends when the East Romans intervene in a conflict over the succession in Persia and receives Armenia from the victorious candidate.
ca 580
Slavic peoples crosses the Danube and settles on the Balkan Peninsula. The Slavs will assimilate most of the indigenous population in the Balkans the following centuries. East Rome’s control over the countryside will for the most time only be theoretical during that period.
The Visigoths conquers the Suevi kingdom.
War against Persia, which occupies Syria and Egypt and together with Avars lay siege on Constantinople 626. Emperor Herakleios launches a counter offensive 627 and takes back all occupied territories.
The Visigoths seizes the last East Roman possessions in Spain.

= Frankish kingdom   = East Roman Empire   = Lost territories   = Conquest 591

634-659 War against the Arabs who conquers Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Cyrenaica. The Arabs keep their conquest after the peace in exchange of an annual tribute to the Byzantine Empire, which the East Roman Empire now is called. Cyprus will be administered jointly by the Arabs and the Byzantines. But the peace will not last and long series of war against the Arabs will take place the following years.
The Arabs siege Constantinople.
The Bulgars create a kingdom of their own along the lower Danube.
The Arabs retakes Carthage, which had fallen to them the previous year.
All of North Africa is under Arab control.

= Frankish kingdom   = Byzantine Empire   = Lost territories

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