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Örjan Martinsson

From City to Empire

The Kingdom 753-510

753 Romelus and Remus found Rome according to the tradition.
Roman territory reaches the coast during the reign of Ancus Martius.
With the accession of Tarquinius Priscus to the throne a period of strong Etruscian influence begin, it will not cease until the creation of the republic 509. During this period Rome also take over the position as Latium’s leading city from Alba Longa.
According to the tradition king Servius Tullius reforms the military and creates the administrative division of Rome into tribus.
This year is the traditional date for the expelling of the last Roman king. A republic replaces the kingdom the following year.

The Early Republic 509-367

507 The Etruscan king Porsenna seize Rome. He is defeated three years later by a coalition of Latins and Greeks from the city of Kyme.
The Latin War, Rome is forced to recognise the Latin cities autonomy, which in their turn only recognises Rome’s leadership in times of war.
The plebeians migrate to the sacred mountain and return to Rome only after the patricians make concessions to them. The office of popular tribune is thereby created to protect the plebeians’ interests.
Concilium plebis, a popular assembly for the plebeians is created. It will later evolve into the comitia tributa, which also includes patricians.
The laws are written down on twelve public tables.
A new migration by the plebeians lead to the revocation of the law against marriages between patricians and plebeians. The same year Rome defeats the Italic tribe of the Sabines.
The ten-year war against Veii, the Etruscan city become Rome’s first large conquest.
The Gauls sack Rome (the traditional year is 390).
Rome’s neighbour city Tusculum is granted Roman citizenship.
The eleven kilometres long Servius wall is erected around Rome.

= Rome 500 BC
= Conquests to 338
= Conquests to 304
= Conquests to 290
= Conquests to 264

The Middle Republic 367-133

367-366 The Licino-Sextian laws resolve the class conflict between patricians and plebeians. The plebeians get access to the highest offices and their leading families merge with the patricians into a new upper class.
The First Samnite War ends with a compromise, Capua is incorporated with Rome and the Samnites enter a union with the Sidicines.
The Latin War, an insurrection against Rome by the Latin cities is subjugated. Rome thereafter dissolves the Latin league and ties the members to Rome with individual treaties. Campania, which also took part in the insurrection, shares their fate.
The Second Samnite War, Rome is victorious despite of a humiliating defeat at the Caudine Passes 321 BC, and annex Campania.
The construction of Via Appia, the first major Roman road, is completed.
Plebeians gets admission to religious offices. Plebeians have thereby achieved legal equality with the patricians.
298-290 The Third Samnite War, a coalition of Samnites, Sabines, Etruscans and Gauls challenge Rome’s hegemony but are defeated. Central Italy is thereafter firmly under Roman control.
A new migration by the plebeians result force the patricians to recognise the decisions made by the plebeians’ popular assembly as Roman laws.
War against the Gauls, Gallia Senones is conquered.
War against Tarentum, which receive aid from the Greek king Pyrrhus. He wins several "Pyrrhic" victories at Heraclea 280 and Ausculum 279. But he returns to Greece when the battle at Beneventum 275 ends in a tie. Tarentum submits to Rome 272 and is followed by Rhegion 270 whereupon all city states in southern Italy have become Roman client states.
An insurrection by the Etruscan city Volsinii is defeated.

= Roman Empire 264 BC   = Conquests to 241  = Conquests to 218  = Conquests to 201

264-241 The First Punic War. When Rome sent military aid to Messina against Syracuse in Sicily they provoked a war against Carthage. The war was fought mainly at sea and resulted in the Roman conquest of Sicily.
A mutiny among the soldiers in Sardinia and Corsica forces Carthage to cede these islands to Rome.
The First Illyrian War, Rome eliminates the Illyrian pirates and forces their queen Teuta to acknowledge Roman supremacy.
Sicily becomes the first Roman province. Sardinia and Corsica becomes the second province the same year.
Treaty between Carthage and Rome is signed, the river Ebro becomes the border between their spheres of interests in Spain.
The Celtic Insubre are defeated and Mediolanum (Milan) is conquered whereby the province of Gallia Cisalpina is created.
The Second Illyrian War, Rome conquers a foothold on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea.
The Second Punic War. Rome provokes a new war against Carthage when they signed an alliance with the city of Sagentum south of Ebro. The Carthagian commander Hannibal crosses the Alps with his army and annihilates a Roman army at the battle at Cannae 216. But he fail to win a decisive victory and is forced to return to Africa 203, there he the year after is defeated in the battle at Zama. Rome conquers Syracuse and Carthage’s territory in Spain.
The First Macedonian War. Macedonia intervenes in the Second Punic War on Carthage’s side but fail to conquer Illyria.

= Roman Empire 201 BC   = Conquests to 167  = Conquests to 146  = Conquests to 133

200-197 The Second Macedonian War. Pergamon, Athens and Rhodes appeal to Rome for help against Macedonia. The Roman consul Flamininius defeats the Macedonians in the battle at Kynoskefalai. Rome takes over Macedonia’s hegemony over Greece.
Rome suppress an uprising by the Gauls in northern Italy.
Flamininus declare the Greek states independent under Roman protection at the Isthmian games.
War against the Seleucid Empire, whose king Antiochus III tried to conquer Egypts possessions in Greece. Rome defeats him and forced him to cede his possessions in Asia Minor to the Roman allies Pergamon and Rhodes.
Revolt by the Iberians against Roman rule over Spain.
The Third Macedonian War. Rome defeats the Macedonians in the battle of Pydna 168 and partition Macedonia into four republics.
Because of the huge booty from the Macedonian war the Roman citizens were excused from pay war contributions. The Illyrian king Genthios who had supported Macedonia is defeated the same year and his kingdom is transformed into the Roman province of Illyricum.
Rome establish a free port at Delos, which take over the trade from Rhodes.
A new uprising challenge Roman rule over the Iberian Peninsula. After several defeats the Roman army led by Conelius Scipio Aemilianus seize Numantia 133 whereby the spanish provinces are finally pacified. The northwestern part of Spain will however remain independent for another century.
The Third Punic War ends with the destruction of the city Carthage and the complete conquest of the country, which is transformed into the Roman province of Africa.
An insurrection in the Macedonian states is crushed and Macedonia becomes a new Roman province.
A Greek insurrection against the Roman hegemony results in the destruction of Corinth and that the country is transformed into another Roman province.
The First Slave War break out when the slaves in Sicily revolts. Rome crush the uprising and crucify 20 000 slaves.
King Attalos III of Pergamon bequeaths his kingdom in Asia Minor to the Roman people.

= Roman Empire 133 BC   = Conquests to 96  = Conquests to 64  = Conquests to 44

The Late Republic 133-31

133 Tiberius Gracchus who had proposed to distribute public land to dispossessed peasants is murdered when he illegally tries to be re-elected as popular tribune.
Tiberius brother Gajus Gracchus continues with plans for land reform but let his slave kill him after that several of his followers had been murdered during civil disturbances in Rome.
Parts of southern France are conquered by the Romans and transformed into the province Gallia Transalpina, later Gallia Narbonensis. The Balearic Islands are incorporated with Rome at the same time.
War against the Cimbri and Teutones. The consul Marius defeats the Germanic tribes who had migrated from Jutland to southern Europe.
The war against Jugurtha of Numidia in Africa is won by Marius.
As consul Marius carry out military reforms and introduce a professional army.
A new uprising by slaves breaks out on Sicily.
Cilicia on the southern coast of Asia Minor is occupied by Roman troops in an effort to stamp out piracy.
Public disturbance in Rome break out again when the popular tribune Saturnius proposes reforms in the spirit of the Gracchus brothers.
Cyrenaica is bequeathed to Rome.
The Social War. Rome’s Italian allies revolt and create their own state. Rome defeats the rebels but is forced to grant them Roman citizenship.
The first war against Mithradates VI of Pontus. Mithradates appeal to the Greeks to rise against Rome and massacre 80 000 Romans in Asia Minor. In Rome a conflict erupts over the leadership of the army between Marius and Sulla. The latter wins but Marius take control over Rome and terrorise Sulla’s supporters while he is occupied with the successful campaigns against Mithradates.
In the second war against Mithradates Rome forces him to acknowledge the terms concluded in the earlier peace treaty.
One of Marius supporters, Sertorius, revolts in Spain. Pompey fights him but the revolt ends first when one of his officers murder him.
Sulla return to Rome and take as dictator a bloody revenge on Marius supporters.
King Nikomedes IV of Bithynia bequeaths his kingdom to Rome.
The third war against Mithradates. After initial successes the Roman army mutinies. Pompey take command of the army 66 BC and finish the war. Rome becomes the undisputed master of the eastern Mediterranean and the provinces of Syria, Pontus and Cilicia are added to the empire.
Slaves led by Spartacus revolts in Italy, they are defeated by Crassus and Pompey.
Pompey exterminate piracy in the Mediterranean and conquers Crete and Cilicia.
Cicero discovers and suppress as consul the conspiracy of Cataline, 3 000 of Cataline’s supporters are killed.
Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar establish the first triumvirate, together they control Rome and they distribute the offices among themselves.
Cyprus is incorporated to the empire as a new province.
The Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar conquers Gaul.
Julius Caesar leads two expeditions to Britain.
The first war against the Parthians break out when they declare war on the Roman client state Armenia. Crassus dies in the disastrous battle at Carrhae 53. The Parthians invade Syria and Asia Minor 40-38. Mark Antony’s campaign in Armenia 36 ends in failure. Augustus conclude peace with the Parthians 20 BC whereby they recognise Roman supremacy over Armenia and return the legion standards taken from Crassus and Antony.
Julius Caesar crosses the river Rubicon and start a civil war against Pompey and his supporters. Julius Caesar is victorius and becomes dictator for life. Numidia becomes the Roman province of Africa Nova 46 BC.
Mithradates son Farnakes tries to take back parts of the kingdom of Pontus that had been conquered by Rome but Julius Caesar defeats him in the battle at Zela (veni vidi vici).
Julius Caesar is murdered by a senatorial conspiracy.
Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian form the second triumvirate to avenge the murder of Julius Caesar and to reorder the state.
Julius Caesar’s murderers are defeated at the battle of Philippi.
Sicily, which is held by Pompey’s son Sextus, is seized by Lepidus and Octavian’s right hand Agrippa. Lepidus then challenges Octavian but his soldiers mutinies and joins Octavian.
Mark Antony accuse the Armenian king for not giving him the promised support in the war against the Parthians and capture him after a campaign in Armenia.
Rome declares war against queen Cleopatra of Egypt. Mark Antony choose to fight on Cleopatra’s side.

The chronology continues on the page: The Imperial Age.