A detail from an illustration of the battle of Gadebusch 1712 which was made by Magnus
Rommel who participated in the battle as Swedish quartermaster general.
In the beginning of the war the Swedish infantry mainly wore the karpus on their heads and
when hats were worn, these were not yet tricornes. The karpus would however soon be
replaced by the tricorne even though the karpus would not disappear completely in the
Swedish army. It was in particular the northern regiments which kept the karpus since it was
warmer than the hat.
On this page the first image for each regiment shows an older appearance of the uniform
while the others have a younger appearance. But exactly when the hat became a tricorne and
turnbacks were introduced is unclear and that is discussed on the page covering the cavalry uniforms.
A more detailed article about the evolution of the Swedish uniform is also available.
Information about the colour of the neck cloths is scarce and in uncertain cases
I have depicted them as white without explanation (this despite the fact that the most common
colour was black). However, an overview of what is known about the neckcloth colours can be found on
Pewter buttons 1701/02 but recruits had in 1707 brass
Colour on cuffs and lining unknown but the
”släpmundering” from 1716 had this combination. Hat lace and button
colour also unknown. Already in 1712 were the uniforms in such a poor
condition that general Stenbock remarked that they looked more like
beggars than soldiers.
Button colour not mentioned. Cloak issued between 1696
Hat lace not mentioned but button holes had white seam.
Instead of the blue and yellow hat lace and red neckcloths from 1707, which Höglund states the regiment wore,
recruits in 1708 had green hat lace and motley neckcloths according to Bengt Nilsson.
White hat lace in 1715 according to Anders Larsson and it
was also white 1720 when white stockings were issued. Received in 1710
both yellow and grey stockings as well as a grey piecoat with yellow
cuff. Later a blue cloak was issued. Had 1716-1720 yellow vests and
breeches of cloth, and the cloak is reported to have had a yellow collar.
Did not receive uniforms when it was restored in 1716 and
wore in Norway 1718 a grey vadmal coat with red cuffs (lining and button
colour is not mentioned) as well as white or grey stockings. Blue coats
with red cuffs and lining were issued in 1719.
The colour of the neckcloth is only mentioned two times. It was red in the 1690s (Bellander page 197) and black
in 1718 according to Höglund.
Hat lace colour unknown. New uniforms issued
in 1704 but without description in the sources.
Button and hat lace colour unknown while the colour on
cuffs and lining is mentioned first in 1716. Blue breeches in 1714
according to Anders Larsson.
A Danish spy report from 1711
describes a grey coat with pewter buttons and yellow cuffs and lining.
This was probably the ”släpmundering” which they wore to avoid wear and
tear on the regular “livmundering”.
Björn Asker writes that information on the karpus is
missing but that it was likely blue with red lining. Anders Larsson has
found information from 1701 which confirms that the karpus was blue with
red lining. Asker also writes that the stockings were "probably" red.
Cloaks were first issued in 1696.
Vest and breeches not mentioned.
The description above is for recruits in 1707, but hats
had been ordered for the entire regiment this year.
After 1713, the restored field companies wore no uniforms for
a long time, but had in 1717 similar uniforms as before, but with a hat instead of
a karpus, and also vest and breeches of red cloth instead of leather.
The Närke-Värmland regiment was in practice split into two parts during
the war. A field regiment consisting of six companies (988 men) whose
uniforms are shown above and four companies (686 men) who stayed at home
to guard the Norwegian border. The home companies received new uniforms
in 1704 which they then wore throughout the war. They differed
from the field regiment by having blue-red karpuses and blue breeches.
A distinguishing feature for this regiment (other than
its red colour) is that the metal parts of their uniforms and equipment
appear to have been made of white metal until 1709.
Breeches and vests of cloth (unknown colour) had been
made in Saxony and because of that a shipment of vests and breeches of
leather were returned to Sweden. The black karpuses with blue cuffs and
yellow lining that had been ordered in 1706 were also sent back.
Hat lace colour unknown.
The restored parts of the regiments wore after Tönningen grey vadmal
Only described as wearing vadmal coats but I guess that
they had the same uniform as Östgöta-Södermanland 3-männings at this
time. The battalion that was a part of the main army received red
Saxon coats after the battle of Kliszow.
Colour of stockings and buttons not mentioned. Also had
grey piecoat with yellow lining and cuffs. Blue breeches in 1704.
Had breeches of leather and blue cloth. Vest and colour of the karpus'
facing is not mentioned.
Only mentioned that they had hat, grey piecoat with blue and yellow lace,
grey vadmal coat with blue cuffs and lace. However, compare the other Swedish 3-männings
because I suspect that they all received the same uniform when they were raised in 1700.
Only thing that is mentioned
are: 1710/173 hat, piecoat, blue coat, leather vest and leather breeches. Received in
1715 new blue coats with pewter buttons, yellow lining and cuffs.
that the coat and breeches were of grey vadmal.
The 3-männings had hats with blue and yellow lace, grey
vadmal coat with pewter buttons, blue cuffs and edge. The men from Bergslagen
had grey piecoat and blue coat with yellow lining and cuffs as well as leather
vest, leather breeches and wool stockings.
Button colour and vest unknown. Colour of the karpus
facing is not mentioned.
New uniform that
replaced earlier grey vadmal clothes.
New blue coats, yellow vests, leather breeches, shoes, gloves, neckcloths
and white wool stockings.
The uniforms of Västerbotten's 3-männings are completely
unknown. The first unit was transferred to Livonia in 1702 and merged with the
parent regiment. The second incarnation was transferred to Finland, but what
happened to it after that is unknown.
Even though it was only Närke-Värmland's 3-männings who explicitly
received such in 1700, and later perhaps also Uppland's 5-männings, I
suspect that it was standard for all männing units to have blue-yellow lace
on their hats.
3- & 5-männings
4- & 5-männings
Småland (and Östgöta)
buttons made of horn. Vest as well as the lining and collar of the cloak not mentioned.
Had until 1716 hat, grey vadmal coat with yellow cuffs, leather vest and leather breeches.
with yellow and blue lace, grey vadmal coat with yellow cuffs, leather vest and
leather breeches. In 1711 hats as well as white and grey stockings were issued. In 1713/1714
they received blue coats with yellow lining and cuffs.
Had leather breeches in 1708 (the vest was not mentioned
at that time).
Höglund writes that they had yellow hat lace in 1710 and
received identical uniforms in 1713, but Anders Larsson states that they
in 1713 had "yellow lace around with blue in it” on the hat.
These regiments were formed by merging contingents of soldiers who had
been separated from their units. The soldiers who were part of these
regiments probably did not have any standardised uniforms, but were
instead dressed in grey vadmal clothes or the uniforms of their parent
In Riga, two such regiments were formed in October 1709 from recruits
who had not been able to join their regiments in the main army and from
soldiers who fled to Riga after the Battle of Ljesna. These regiments
were then disbanded when all national Swedish personnel were sent back
to Sweden in 1710.
In Wismar, in 1713, a combined regiment was formed of men who, for
various reasons, had been left there by Magnus Stenbock when he marched
towards Tönningen (mainly soldiers who had been wounded in the battle of
Gadebusch). The regiment was first led by Henrik Klingstedt, but in the
fall of 1714 it seems to have become two independent battalions under the
command of lieutenant colonels Wrangel and Numers. From June 1715,
Numers is no longer mentioned and all the men were now under Wrangel's
Per Banér's regiment
879 Scanians, 70 men from Jönköping, 77 men from Kronoberg and 95 men
455 men from Hallland and Närke-Värmland's 3-männings, 101 men from Uppland, 90 men
from Västergötland, 87 men from Östergötland, 63 men from Närke-Värmland's regiment, 80
men from Västmanland, 60 men from Södermanland and 154 men from Västerbotten
78 men from Södermanland, 141 from Västmanland, 139 from Älvsborg, 172 from Dalarna, 70
from Västgöta-Dal, 183 from Hälsinge regiment, 83 from Närke-Värmland.
and 85 men from Östergötland.
The uniform of Wiek LandRegiment, which existed in 1701-1704,
is completely unknown.
The colour of
the hat lace and the vest are not mentioned at any point (nor is
the lining of the grey uniform).
According to Höglund, the coat was blue with yellow lining and cuffs in
1702 when they also had a hat and leather breeches. However, Höglund
does not mention a grey uniform in 1704-1706, while Kalle Kroon does not
mention a blue uniform before 1707
buttons and the colour of the hat lace are not mentioned.
Danish sources are said to
have described captured soldiers from these regiments as dressed in
simple peasant clothing. As there is no evidence that uniforms were
issued to them, it is likely that they never had any.
Life Regiment on Foot
1695 and 1702
Vest not mentioned. Was a garrison regiment in Stettin and other towns.
1698 and 1702
Stralsund Garrison Regiment
1702 and 1703
Vest not mentioned. According to Höglund they likely had
the same uniform in 1710 which was then in good condition.
Vest not mentioned and also not the colour on the cloak’s
lining and collar apart from the white lace. The uniform colour is stated
"Hoch Orange", which according to Höglund was closest to "cinnober" red
1703 and 1706
Hat lace, cloak, buttons and facing colours not mentioned,
but they had these colours in 1704 (when the breeches were made of leather and the vest was not mentioned)
Vest not mentioned.
Colour on hat lace, buttons and stockings not mentioned,
but they probably received the same uniform as the Governor's regiment
Vest not mentioned. The buttonholes were not mentioned either but I have
guessed that they were white.
Also had gaiters. Colours of the hat lace and the cloak's
collar are unknown. The buttonholes are also not mentioned, but the provost had white
buttonholes and a hat with red and white lace.
Vest not mentioned. Pewter buttons according to Lars-Eric
Höglund, brass buttons according to Anders Larsson.
A regiment that had been
in British service before it was transferred to the Swedish army in 1712. It was
disbanded when Stralsund capitulated in 1715.
Corporals are mentioned to have had buttonholes sewn in red so
probably the rest of rank and file did not have it. Received a new uniform in
1701 which was the same except for blue vests with buttonholes sewn
in red for corporals.
In 1698, they also had a blue karpus, blue breeches and grey stockings.
Received a new uniform in 1701, which was identical with the one from 1698.
Hat lace, button colour and vest unknown. Received hats
with silver lace in 1699 and had brass buttons in 1698 (when breeches
and hat lace were yellow).
Also had hats with blue lace.
Grenadier Company in
de la Gardie's Regiment
De la Gardie's Regiment
Vest not mentioned.
Only the cap is known.
De la Gardie’s regimental colour was actually yellow but the grenadier
company was supposedly part of the Narva garrison and may have received
uniforms with the same colours as its garrison regiment.
Vest and breeches are not mentioned but breeches were
blue in 1705. The tassel on the karpus might suggest that the crown was of
a similar design as the grenadier cap.
Hat lace and
vest not mentioned. Were probably dressed in grey vadmal before 1703.
Also had blue
Vest not mentioned.
Hat lace and vest not mentioned.
Reval Staff Major's Battalion
Facings and vest not mentioned.
hat lace, buttons and vest not mentioned.
The facings of the karpus is not mentioned.
When the Great Northern War began, the artillerymen were supposed to have
grey coats with blue cuffs, but during the course of the war they
transitioned to all blue coats. Already in 1696 had the colonel of the
Artillery Regiment requested that the artillerymen should wear blue coats
just like the rest of the army, but this was denied by the King. Despite of
that decision there are early cases of blue artillery coats from Dalarö
(1702), Narva (1703, with grey stockings), Dorpat & Pernau (1704, with grey
stockings), Vaxholm (1704, with yellow cuffs and white stockings) and
Landskrona & Varberg (1709). From 1711 and onwards the coats were always
During the transition phase there are known cases of grey coats for the
artillery in Livonia and Courland (1702), Bremen-Verden (1703), Jönköping
(1707 & 1708) and Stenbock’s army (1709).
When the colour of the hat lace is mentioned, it is always yellow for the
grey clad artillerymen: Riga & Kobron (1697), Livonia & Courland (1702) and
Jönköping (1707 & 1708). Artillery constables in Bremen-Verden had gold lace
in 1703. Likewise do the grey clad artillerymen appear to always have had
brass buttons, leather breeches, leather vests and blue stockings when these
details are mentioned.
For the blue clad artillerymen there are three cases when the hat lace
colour was mentioned and each time it was white (Finland 1711, Wismar 1715
and Karlshamn 1717). There is one case where the button colour was mentioned
and it was pewter (Wismar 1715). Vest, breeches and stockings were
consistently blue from 1711 and onwards, but before that year there were
Asker, Björn. Om svenska fotfolkets nybeklädnad(article in MAM 40).
Asker, Björn. Upplands regemente och Karl XI:s uniformsreformer(article in MAM 39).
Stockholm (1981). Bellander, Erik. Dräkt och uniform. Stockholm
Höglund, Lars-Eric – Sallnäs, Åke. Stora nordiska kriget 1700-1721 - Fanor och uniformer. Karlstad (2000).
Höglund, Lars-Eric – Sallnäs, Åke. Stora nordiska kriget 1700-1721, II.Karlstad (2003).
Larsson, Anders. Karolinska uniformer och munderingar åren 1700-1721.
Åberg, Alf – Göransson, Göte. Karoliner. Stockholm (1976).
The information from Kalle Kroon comes from an e-mail he has sent me, but I have
published it on my blog.